An Overview of Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E


Hepatitis is not just a health problem in Indonesia, but the world. Hepatitis A and E even often appear as Extraordinary Events for associating with hygienic behavior.

While hepatitis B, C, and D can become chronic and lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Indonesia is a country with high endemicity of hepatitis B, the second largest in the country of South East Asian Region (SEAR) after Myanmar. Based on the results of Health Research (Riskesdas), studies and screening of donor blood, the Red Cross estimated at between 100 Indonesia, there are 10 of them are infected with hepatitis B or C.

Previously, you had to know that the term hepatitis is used for all types of inflammation of the liver cells caused by infection (virus, bacteria, parasites), medicines (including traditional ibat), alcohol consumption, excess fat and autoimmune diseases.

Page Ministry of Health noted that there are five types of hepatitis that are not interconnected, among others:

1. Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis A (VHA), including Picornaviridae which is an RNA virus. This virus is resistant to acid, thermostable and resistant to bile. Transmission is common in fecal-oral (into the digestive tract through food and drink contaminated feces patient VHA).

The symptoms are acute, can include fever, headache, nausea and vomiting to jaundice (condition of the body becomes too much bilirubin so that the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow), and even can cause swelling of the liver.

Because there is no specific treatment and only supportive treatment, prevention can not be separated from environmental hygiene, especially for food and beverages.

2. Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus. This virus infects humans apart can also infect chimpanzees. HBV can be found in body fluids (blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluid) but not all have high levels of infectious virus.

In general, vertical transmission is 95 percent occur in the perinatal period (during labor) and 5 percent of intra uterine. Horizontal transmission through blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, razors, tattoo, and organ transplants.

Symptoms are not typical, such as lethargy, decreased appetite, mild fever, abdominal pain right, tea-colored urine.

Prevention, has made screening (screening) of blood to the blood bank from 1992 through PMI. Immunization also been included in the national program.

3. Hepatitis C

The cause of hepatitis C is VHC which includes family Flaviviridea Hepacivirus genus and is an RNA virus. It has 6 genotypes and more than 50 subtypes. Transmission through blood and body fluids, parenteral such as the joint use of personal devices sufferers (toothbrushes, razors) also unsterilized needles, work accidents, sexual intercourse can transmit but a very small risk.

Prevention, can be done by avoiding risk because of the unavailability of the vaccine.

4. Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D virus is an RNA virus with a defect, meaning the virus is not able to perfectly replicate without the help of another virus, the hepatitis B virus

Transmission to follow the course of the disease hepatitis B (parenteral), meaning that if the virus suffered acute hepatitis B recover, then VHD will also be lost.

5. Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus, an RNA virus are spherical. This virus was originally referred to as the cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (ET-NANB). VHE transmitted by the fecal oral route. Faeces contaminated drinking water is the most common transmission media.

Mild symptoms resemble the flu, to jaundice. Prevention can be done by keeping the environment, especially the cleanliness of food and beverages.
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